Resumen: "Abstract Brocket deer (Mazama) are one of the least known members of the fam- ily Cervidae in the world, but important advances have been reached recently. We present here information about its geographic distribution and phylogenetic rela- tionships. Studies based on molecular data have noted the polyphyly of genus, but there is not consensus about the specific position among Mazama species, even taxonomic status for some of their species still needs to be defined. Biological traits of the species within this genus, like evasive and mostly nocturnal, and low popula- tion densities as well as accelerated habitat loss rates, put most of them in high extinction risk. A synthesis about their reproduction, activity patterns, food habits, habitat requirements, and main threats to the persistence of brocket deer species face is presented here. More research efforts in systematics, population genetics, and ecology for these species are required to assess the human impact on their popu- lations and effectively revert the negative trend that some populations of these spe- cies are showing through its distributional range."