Holocene Paleoecology and Paleoclimatology of South and Southeastern Mexico: A Palynological and Geospatial Approach
Periodo de realización: 1900/01/01 al 2019/01/01
Tipo: Capítulo de libro
Lugar(es) de estudio: Península de Yucatán
Resumen: "Reconstruction of Holocene paleoecological conditions and paleocli- mate of an area with high biological diversity and a variety of climatic conditions like southern and southeastern Mexico is complex. This region is characterized by vegetation types ranging from tropical forest to high mountain vegetation. Additionally, this region was inhabited by the ancient Maya culture, which shaped the landscape for several millennia. Previous paleoecological studies from this region were focused on the Maya culture-environment relationships, to decipher natural and human-induced deforestation. These studies also aimed to understand the effects of climatic regional forcing (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the natural vegetation. In this chapter we review the paleoecological results and present a new geospatial approach to analyze past precipitation and tropical forest distribution of the Yucatán Peninsula from 1 AD to 1700 AD in 100-year intervals. The geospatial analysis revealed heterogeneity in spatial patterns of precipitation and tropical forest extension during the Late Preclassic, Terminal Classic, and Medieval Warm Period to Little Ice Age transition. The dry periods of the Middle and Late Holocene in the Yucatán Peninsula and southern Mexico can be chrono- logically placed in the following intervals: 4700–3600 cal year BP, 3400– 2500 cal year BP, 2300–2100 cal year BP, 1900–1700 cal year BP, 1400–1300 cal year BP, 730 cal year BP, and 560 cal year BP. We conclude that this region requires additional studies with strong chronological framework due to its heterogeneous environmental conditions."