From Calakmul to the Sea: The Historical Ecology of a Classic Maya City That Controlled the Candelaria/Champoton Watersheds
Periodo de realización: 1900/01/01 al 2019/01/01
Tipo: Capítulo de libro
Lugar(es) de estudio: Campeche, Camp., México
Resumen: "The Candelaria River watershed of Campeche, Mexico, and Petén, Guatemala, has shaped millennia of Maya, perhaps from their beginnings and gen- erations of archaeologists. This chapter reviews efforts to understand Candelaria historical ecology over the past four decades, mostly in the northern branch, the Candelaria-El Caribe-Tomatillal system, as it relates to the cities of Calakmul and Uxul. Additional investigations stem from the river system farther north, the Champoton-Desempeño watershed, which also approaches Calakmul at its headwa- ters. Four other projects (Oxpemul, Yaxnohcah, Naachtun, Uxul) have emerged in the southern branches of the Candelaria and Desempeño in recent years, in addition to a long-standing project at El Mirador. Methods utilized range over global-local climate teleconnections, geology, ethnoecology, soil formation and transformation, geochemistry, pollen, and phytolith sampling. Brief but key statements of results for each method are reported as they contribute to a holistic perspective on the evolution and the death of Calakmul. Key interests that guided the research are the commer- cial location of the city and watershed in the Maya urban system, the way the water- shed shaped the human settlement pattern in the west central Maya Lowlands, the socio-ecological adaptations over time, and its utility as a middle-level unit of study in links between human and Earth system changes. Finally, a nutrient flow model unifies the results into a concept that may yield deeper insights into the narrative and simulation modelling of Maya social evolution."