Silvopastoral systems of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in southern Mexico: Strategies with a traditional basis
Periodo de realización: 1900/01/01 al 2016/01/01
Tipo: Artículo científico
Lugar(es) de estudio: Tulija, Chis., México
Resumen: "ilvopastoral systems combine trees and/or shrubs with grazing cattle. In the municipality of Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico, some indigenous communities have developed silvopastoral systems based on their traditional knowledge regarding use of local natural resources. Through analysis of classification based on the composition of tree vegetation, two groups of grazing units were identified in the study area. Different attributes of tree and herbaceous vegetation, as well as of agricultural management and production, were compared between the two groups. Results indicate that at least two strategies of silvopastoral management exist. The first - LTD - is characterized by an average density of 22 adult trees ha1 in grazing units with an average surface area of 22.4 ha. The second - HTD - has an average of 54.4 trees ha1 in grazing units with an average surface area of 12.2 ha. Average richness per grazing unit for the LTD strategy was 7.2 species, and for HTD strategy it was 12.7 species. Average basal area for LTD was 1.7 m2 ha1, and for HTD 3.8 m2 ha1. Finally, the average level of fixed carbon for LTD was 2.12 mg ha1, and for HTD 4.89 mg ha1. For all variables, there was a significant difference between the two strategies. In addition, both strategies differ in prairie management. In the HTD strategy, growers spare their preferred spontaneously growing tree species by clearing around them. Many of these spe- cies, particularly those harvested for timber, belong to the original vegetation. In these prairies, average coverage of native grasses (60.8 ± 7.85) was significantly greater than in the LTD strategy (38.4 ± 11.32), and neither fertilizers nor fire are used to maintain or improve the pastures"